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Help:Editing

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Editing a Wiki page is very easy. Simply click on the the edit link on the right or bottom of a Wiki page. This will bring you to a page with a text box containing the editable text of that page. You should write a short summary in the small field below the edit-box. You may use shorthand to describe your changes, and when you have finished, press preview to see how your changes will look. If you're happy with what you see, then press "Save" and your changes will be immediately applied to the article. Do not "sign" edits you make to regular articles (the software keeps track of who makes every change).

You can also click on the "Discussion" tab to see the corresponding talk page, which contains comments about the page from other users. Click on the "+" tab to add a new section, or edit the page in the same way as an article page. When editing talk pages, please sign your change.

Minor edits

When editing a page, a logged-in user can mark that edit as being "minor". Minor edits generally mean spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearrangement of text. It is possible to hide minor edits when viewing Recent Changes. Marking a significant change as a minor edit is considered bad behavior, and even more so if it involves the deletion of some text. If one has accidentally marked an edit as minor, the person should edit the source once more, mark it major (or, rather, ensure that the check-box for "This is a minor edit" is not checked), and, in the summary, state that the previous change was a major one.

Wiki markup

The wiki markup is the syntax system you can use to format a Wiki page.

In the left column of the table below, you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.

You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference.

Sections, paragraphs, lists, and lines

What it looks like What you type

Start your sections as follows:

New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection

• Start with a second-level heading (==); do not use first-level headings (=).
• Do not skip levels (for example, second-level followed by fourth-level).
• A Table of Contents will automatically be added to an article that has four or more sections.
==New section==

===Subsection===

====Sub-subsection====


A single newline generally has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Some editors find that this aids editing and improves the function diff (used internally to compare different versions of a page).

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

• When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (see below).
A single [[newline]]
generally has no effect on the layout.
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the function ''diff''
(used internally to compare
different versions of a page).

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.


You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

• Please use this sparingly.
• Close markup between lines, do not start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.
You can break lines<br/>
without starting a new paragraph.

• Lists are easy to do:
• Start every line with a star (= asterisk).
• More stars means deeper levels.
• A newline in a list

marks the end of a list item.

• An empty line starts a new list.
* Lists are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars means deeper levels.
**** A newline in a list
marks the end of a list item.

* An empty line starts a new list.

1. Numbered lists are also good
1. very organized
2. easy to follow
1. easier still
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
### easier still

• You can even do mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this

Definition list
list of definitions
item
the item's definition
another item
the other item's definition
• One item per line; a newline can appear before the colon, but using a space before the colon improves parsing.
; Definition list : list of definitions
; item : the item's definition
; another item
: the other item's definition

A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

• This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.


When there is a need for separating a block of text

the blockquote command will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

<blockquote>
The '''blockquote''' command will indent
both margins when needed instead of the
left margin only as the colon does.
</blockquote>

IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines will not wrap;
ENDIF

• This is useful for:
• pasting preformatted text;
• algorithm descriptions;
• program source code;
• ASCII art;
• chemical structures;
• WARNING: If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable, especially for people who use lower resolutions. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.
 IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines will not wrap;
ENDIF

Centered text.
• Please note the American spelling of "center."
<center>Centered text.</center>


A horizontal dividing line: this is above it

and this is below it.

• Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.
• Also used to disambiguate within an article without creating a separate page.
A [[horizontal dividing line]]:
this is above it
----
and this is below it.


Links and URLs

What it looks like What you type

Journals that start with H are on the JournalsH page.

• A link to another page.
• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link above is to the URL http://commons.discourse.net/ce/index.php?title=H
Journals that start with H are on the [[H]] page.


Journals that start with I have I page.

• Same target, different name.
• This is a piped link.
[[Journals I|I]] page.


• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.

When adding a comment to a Talk page, you should sign it by adding three tildes to add your user name:

Ben Brockert

or four to add user name plus date/time:

Ben Brockert 00:18, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)

Five tildes gives the date/time alone:

00:18, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)
• The first two both provide a link to your user page.
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it by adding
three tildes to add your user name:
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• Note that, while it is possible to link to a section, it is not possible to redirect to a section. For example, "#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]" will redirect to the United States page, but not to any particular section on it. This feature will not be implemented in the future, so such redirects should not be used.
#REDIRECT [[United States]]

• Link to a page on the same subject in another language by using a link of the form: [[language code:Title]].
• It does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
|- id="link-external" valign="top"
|
Three ways to link to external (non-wiki) sources:
# Bare URL: http://www.nupedia.com/ (bad style)
# Unnamed link: [http://www.nupedia.com/] ('''very bad style''')
# Named link: [http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]

:See [[MetaWikiPedia:Interwiki_map]] for the list of shortcuts.

* Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a ''space'' (not a pipe) to separate the URL from the link text in the "named" version.
* In the [[URL]], all symbols must be among:<br/>'''A-Z a-z 0-9 . _ \ / ~ % - + & # ? ! = ( ) @ \x80-\xFF'''
* If a URL contains a character not in this list, it should be encoded by using a percent sign (%) followed by the [[hexadecimal|hex]] code of the character, which can be found in the table of [[ASCII#ASCII printable characters|ASCII printable characters]]. For example, the caret character (^) would be encoded in a URL as '''%5E'''.
* There is a class that can be used to remove the arrow image from the external link. It is used in [[Template:Ref]] to stop the URL from expanding during printing. It should '''never''' be used in the main body of an article. However, there is an exception: wikilinks in Image markup. An example of the markup is as follows:
** Markup: <nowiki><span class="plainlinksneverexpand">[http://www.sysinternals.com/ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]</span>
** Display: <span class="plainlinksneverexpand">[http://www.sysinternals.com/ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]</span>

|
<pre>
Three ways to link to external (non-wiki) sources:
# Bare URL: http://www.nupedia.com/ (bad style)
# Unnamed link: [http://www.nupedia.com/] ('''very bad style''')
# Named link: [http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]


Linking to other wikis:

1. Interwiki link: Wiktionary:Hello
2. Named interwiki link: Hello
3. Interwiki link without prefix: Hello

Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

• These are double, triple, and quintuple apostrophes (single-quote marks), not double-quote marks.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''', '''''very strongly'''''.


$\sin x + \ln y$
sinx + lny

$\mathbf{x} = 0$
x = 0

Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis, and should not use <i> or <b>. However, mathematical formulas often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulas should use $ markup, and simple formulas may use [itex]; or <i> and <b>; or '' and '''. | [itex]\sin x + \ln y$
sin''x'' + ln''y''

$\mathbf{x} = 0$
'''x''' = 0


A typewriter font for monospace text or for computer code: int main()

• For semantic reasons, using <code> where applicable is preferable to using <tt>.
A typewriter font for <tt>monospace text</tt>
or for computer code: <code>int main()</code>


You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup rather than visual markup.

• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup
rather than visual markup.


Diacritical marks:
À �? Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì �? Î �? Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
<br/>
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
<br/>
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
<br/>
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
<br/>
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]


Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;


Spacing in simple math formulas:
Obviously, x² ≥ 0 is true.

• To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, use non-breaking spaces: &nbsp;.

Obviously, ''x''&sup2;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;0 is true.


Complicated formulas:

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
• See Help:Formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character references.
• To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;

<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'')
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>


Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
• Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.

<!-- comment here -->


(see also: Chess symbols in Unicode)

Table of Contents

Placement of the Table of Contents (TOC)

At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the TOC to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear.

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